Technologies of Cognitive Neuroscience in Business
Electroencephalography (EEG) records the alpha and beta rhythms of neural activity under the scalp. In particular, lowering the alpha rhythm and replacing it with the beta betrays a cognitive activity determined by will.
Galvanometer (GSR) indicates the intensity of emotional reactions by measuring changes (occurring in skin conductance) induced by the vegetative nervous system. However, this technique does not indicate the value of the emotional reactions, but only their intensity, so there can be no difference if, for example, the states of surprise are positive or negative.
Functional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) records the level of oxygen concentration in the blood. Active neurons consume a higher amount of oxygen, so the oxygen level in the rest of the body decreases. This allows the recording of oxygen concentration changes in the body’s blood (decreases concentration in the other parts of the body and increases for active neurons) and their output by the blood oxygen level dependent signal (BOLD).
If electroencephalography records only the activity of the neurons under the scalp, the functional nuclear magnetic resonance is much deeper, recording the activity of the neurons located within the cerebral hemispheres.
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies brain activity in real-time (millisecond). This is possible by recording the magnetic field produced by the synchronized neurons.
Eye-tracking equipment (ET) indicates eye movement and eye view. The view does not have a homogeneous course, but involves a series of short stops, called fixations. Thus, eye-tracking equipment mainly studies these fixations. This is possible by recording corneal reflections due to infrared radiation.
Because they provide different information, these techniques can be combined in order to get even more complex information. Even though processes are expensive, they have a considerable contribution to research into decision-making and marketing communication.